Plasma gasification is one of the technologies leading us into the future. Plasma is known as the fourth state of matter. Adding energy to matter will bring it from solid to liquid, from liquid to gas, and from gas to plasma.
People are very familiar with the solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, but not with plasma, the fourth state of matter, which is reached at sufficiently high temperatures and energy densities.
Plasma state is an ionized gas comprising molecules, atoms, ions (in their ground or in various excited states), electrons and photons. It is electrically conductive since there are free electrons and ions present, and is in local electrical neutrality, since the numbers of free electrons and ions are equal. More than 99% of our known universe is in the plasma state. Lightning and auroras are other common examples on earth.
The high energy content of plasma state compared to that of ordinary gases or even the highest temperature combustion flames offers unlimited potential for its use in a number of significant modern industrial applications.
In summary, plasma offers:
High temperatures ( 5 000- 30 000 K)
High thermal conductivity
No combustion indispensable
- Feedstock/Product Flexibility
Waste materials that can be used as feedstocks for the Plasma reactor are Medical waste, Outdated pharmaceuticals, PCBs, Chemical agents, Hazardous incinerator ash, Various biological wastes, Sludge, Paints and solvents, Electronic industry waste, Contaminated soils and Asbestos.
The key market segments for the PLASMA Technology are Waste Remediation, Power/Energy and Nanomaterials Production.
Other key market segments for Plasma Technology are the Military and Law Enforcement Agencies. Its important to notice that within the Waste Remediation industry, the Plasma technology is used among others for unexploded ordinance and explosive ordinance such as munitions, weapons, and chemical warfare material that are found on military bases, firing ranges, and former war zones scattered throughout the world.
For a waste management process PLASMA Technology holds a very good prospect of adoption, as it is a process which is very efficient at diverting waste away from landfill, and thus scores highly among local authority waste disposal engineers who are constantly seeking to comply with regulations to reduce the amount of organic waste sent to landfill.
--Ecology, Plasma pyrolysis and vitrification of various wastes
--Energy, Waste to Energy Plasma: a range of solid fuels (as well as Biomass, Municipal solid waste, Scrap Tire Waste, low-grade coal, etc.) can be transformed to synthesis gas and liquid fuel (for instance black oil, diesel, kerosene and gasoline fractions) with high effectiveness in a plasma pyrolysis reactor.
--Production of Nanomaterials, a variety of nanomaterials can be created in plasma reactors such as Construction composite materials, Polymer composite materials, General mechanical rubber goods, Medicine, and Semiconductor.
- Environmental Benefits of Plasma
The PLASMA Technology process also holds another merit and that is that it is being viewed more favorably by the public than incineration, and one main reason for that would be its clean emissions record when compared with incinerators historically.
The thermo-destruction of industrial, hospital and agricultural waste is now even more efficient and fully compliant with current regulations on environmental emissions.
The chemical and physical characteristics of the waste and the residues from thermal treatment processing establish the most appropriate combustion procedure. In this approach, the flame-resistant materials are eliminated. The adjustment system continually reins each phase of the thermal destruction procedure, from the introduction of the waste into the heating system to the analysis and monitoring of the emissions into the ambiance.
It unlocks the greatest amount of energy from waste
Feedstocks can be mixed, such as municipal solid waste, biomass, tires, hazardous waste, and auto shredder waste
It does not generate methane, a potent greenhouse gas
It is not incineration and therefore doesnt produce leachable bottom ash or fly ash
It reduces the need for landfilling of waste
It produces syngas, which can be combusted in a gas turbine or reciprocating to produce electricity or further processed into chemicals, fertilizers, or transportation fuelsthereby reducing the need for virgin materials to produce these products
It has low environmental emissions and nonexistence of harmful emissions (as well as dioxides)
The arc in the plasma within the vessel can be as high as 30,000 degrees Fahrenheit ... three times hotter than the surface of the Sun. It is the absorption of this energy by the waste material that forces the waste destruction and elemental dissociation.
Reception of the clean alloyed slag which can be used as building materials or buries, not being uncovered to destruction
The use of highly developed technology allows the optimization of energy recuperation from waste, dispensation residues and/or biomasses, based upon the precise necessities of each consumer
Opportunity to receive from organic waste products combustible gases which can be used in the technological purposes
Opportunity to receive thermal or electric energy
Opportunity of reception from waste products of valuable products
Irreversible destroy many hazardous contaminants including anthrax, mad cow disease, and foot and mouth disease.
The intense radiant energy and super high temperatures created by the plasma arc will cause the actual molecules that make up the viruses and bacteria to break apart through a process called "molecular dissociation". No hazardous organisms or agents that go into the Plasma vessel survive.
--Industrial Heat & Steam
Displacement of Natural Gas or Fuel Oil
Heating and Drying
Rankine Cycle (Gasifier > Thermal Oxidizer > HRSG > Steam Turbine)
Gas Engines (Gasifier > Gas Cleaning > Gas Engines)
Combined Cycle (Gasifier > Gas Cleaning > Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine IGCC)
--Liquid Fuels / Chemicals
Fertilizers (Urea, Ammonia, etc.)